Does the wine industry know what the nanny state government is planning and how it will impact on their livelihoods, businesses and employees.
These are the highlights recommended by the WHO to all countries, because one size fits all of course –
Ban all media reporting on wine, discussing wine and promoting wine – Platter Wine Guide- goodbye, Winemag.co.za – toast, Good Taste – finito, wine.co.za – gone
Allow no wines reviews in print or on social media
Force taxes up (while conforming to WTO free trade) so when the flood of cheap imported wine hits SA shelves through Checkers, Makro and Woolworths and alike, price is the is the only driver left so SA wine stop selling – this kills jobs in the Western Cape on wine farms for 250 000 people, Consol Glass will shed jobs as wine bottles will be reduced and associated industries will contract as well. (Without profitable wine farms there can be no support of farm schools and associations)
Support Non Alc drinks at the expense of alcoholic drinks including wine – the competition commission stands to be flooded with complaints.
Stop the Duty Free stores at Airports from selling alcohol at a priceless that it is available in normal retail thus taking a unique competitive advantage away and killing ACSA’s main rental income earner and further reducing employment.
All wine award will be banned for glamorizing/ marketing wine making the remaining wine that could be exported less competitive against their international rivals around consumer awareness of quality.
This is the resolution by the WHO outlining the fight against alcohol.
Strategies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol:
draft global strategy
Report by the Secretariat
1. In resolution WHA61.4 (Strategies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol) the Health Assembly
requested the Director-General to submit to the Sixty-third World Health Assembly, through the
Executive Board, a draft global strategy to reduce harmful use of alcohol. The Health Assembly urged
Member States to collaborate with the Secretariat in developing a draft global strategy, and further
requested the Director-General to collaborate and consult with Member States, as well as to consult
with intergovernmental organizations, health professionals, nongovernmental organizations and
economic operators on ways they could contribute to reducing harmful use of alcohol.
2. The Secretariat has drafted a strategy (Annex 1) through an inclusive and broad collaborative
process with Member States. In doing so, the Secretariat took into consideration the outcomes of
consultations with other stakeholders on ways in which they can contribute to reducing the harmful
use of alcohol. The draft strategy is based on existing best practices and available evidence of
effectiveness and cost–effectiveness of strategies and interventions to reduce the harmful use of
alcohol; this evidence is summarized in Annex 2.
3. The consultative process started with a public, web-based hearing from 3 October to
15 November 2008, giving Member States and other stakeholders an opportunity to submit proposals
on ways to reduce harmful use of alcohol. Two separate round-table discussions, one with
nongovernmental organizations and health professionals and the other with economic operators, were
organized in Geneva in November 2008 in order to collect views on ways these stakeholders could
contribute to reducing harmful use of alcohol. Subsequently, a consultation with selected
intergovernmental organizations was held (Geneva, 8 September 2009).1
4. The Secretariat began work on a draft strategy by preparing a discussion paper for further
consultations with Member States. That paper was formulated on the basis of the deliberations of
WHO’s governing bodies and several regional committee sessions as well as the similar outcomes of
those bodies pertaining to other related areas such as noncommunicable diseases, mental health,
violence and injury prevention, cancer, family and community health, social determinants of health,
HIV/AIDS, and trade and health. The discussion paper was also influenced by the outcomes of the
Secretariat’s technical activities on alcohol and health, including the relevant meetings of technical
experts. The discussion paper was sent to the Member States and posted on the WHO web site.
See the WHO web site for further information about the process of implementing resolution WHA61.4 and links to
the various documents referred to in this report: http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/activities/globalstrategy/en/index.html. EB126/13
5. Six regional technical consultations were held between February and May 2009, attended by
participants nominated by governments of 149 Member States. Three consultations were held in the
WHO Regional Offices for Africa, Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean. The governments of Brazil,
Thailand and New Zealand, respectively, hosted the consultations for Member States in the Region of
the Americas and the South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions. In all these regional consultations,
Member States were invited to provide their views on the possible areas for global action and
coordination outlined in the discussion paper, and on how the strategy could best take into account
national needs and priorities. In addition, Member States were encouraged to provide information on
current national and subregional processes that could contribute to the strategy development process,
as well as examples of best practices, with special emphasis on at-risk populations, young people and
those affected by the harmful drinking of others.
6. To write a working document for developing a draft global strategy to reduce harmful use of
alcohol, the Secretariat built on the outcomes of the regional consultations with Member States and
taking into consideration the outcomes of the previous consultative process with all stakeholders on
ways in which they could contribute to reducing the harmful use of alcohol. The resulting document
provided background information, suggested aims, objectives and guiding principles for a global
strategy, target areas and a set of policy measures and interventions that it was proposed Member
States could implement at the national level. The working document was sent to Member States in
August 2009 with an invitation for written feed-back on its content, and posted on the WHO web site.
The Secretariat received written feedback from 40 Member States.
7. To continue the collaboration with Member States on the draft strategy the Secretariat held an
informal consultation with Member States on 8 October 2009 in Geneva in order to discuss the
feedback on the working document and to offer an opportunity for Member States to provide further
guidance on finalizing a draft global strategy. Further taking into account the outcome of that informal
consultation, the Secretariat finalized a draft global strategy.
ACTION BY THE EXECUTIVE BOARD
8. The Board is invited to consider adopting the following draft resolution.
The Executive Board,
Having considered the report on strategies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol and the
draft global strategy annexed therein;1
RECOMMENDS to the Sixty-third World Health Assembly the adoption of the following
The Sixty-third World Health Assembly,
Having considered the report on strategies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol and
the draft global strategy annexed therein;
Document EB126/13. EB126/13
Recalling resolutions WHA58.26 on public-health problems caused by harmful use
of alcohol and WHA61.4 on strategies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol,
1. ENDORSES the global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol;
2. URGES Member States:
(1) to adopt and implement the global strategy to reduce the harmful use of
alcohol as appropriate in order to complement and support public health policies in
Member States to reduce the harmful use of alcohol, and to mobilize political will
and financial resources for that purpose;
(2) to continue implementation of the resolutions WHA61.4 on the strategies to
reduce the harmful use of alcohol and WHA58.26 on public-health problems
caused by harmful use of alcohol;
(3) to ensure that implementation of the global strategy to reduce the harmful
use of alcohol strengthens the national efforts to protect at-risk populations, young
people and those affected by harmful drinking of others;
(4) to ensure that implementation of the global strategy to reduce the harmful
use of alcohol is reflected in the national monitoring systems and reported regularly
to WHO’s information system on alcohol and health;
3. REQUESTS the Director-General:
(1) to give sufficiently high organizational priority to prevention and reduction
of harmful use of alcohol and implementation of the global strategy to reduce the
harmful use of alcohol;
(2) to collaborate with Member States in the implementation of the global
strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol;
(3) to provide support to Member States, as appropriate, in implementing the
global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol and strengthening national
responses to public health problems caused by the harmful use of alcohol;
(4) to monitor progress in implementing the global strategy to reduce the
harmful use of alcohol and to report progress, through the Executive Board, to the
Sixty-sixth World Health Assembly. EB126/13
DRAFT GLOBAL STRATEGY TO REDUCE THE HARMFUL USE OF ALCOHOL
Setting the scene
1. The harmful use of alcohol1
has a serious effect on public health and is considered to be one of
the main risk factors for poor health globally. In the context of this draft strategy, the concept of the
harmful use of alcohol2
is broad and encompasses the drinking that causes detrimental health and
social consequences for the drinker, the people around the drinker and society at large, as well as the
patterns of drinking that are associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes. The harmful
use of alcohol compromises both individual and social development. It can ruin the lives of
individuals, devastate families, and damage the fabric of communities.
2. The harmful use of alcohol is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and is
listed as the third leading risk factor for premature deaths and disabilities in the world.3
It is estimated
that 2.5 million people worldwide died of alcohol-related causes in 2004, including 320 000 young
people between 15 and 29 years of age. Harmful use of alcohol was responsible for 3.8% of all deaths
in the world in 2004 and 4.5% of the global burden of disease as measured in disability-adjusted life
years lost, even when consideration is given to the modest protective effects, especially on coronary
heart disease, of low consumption of alcohol for some people aged 40 years or older.
3. Harmful drinking is a major avoidable risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders and other
noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cirrhosis of the liver and various cancers.
For some diseases there is no evidence of a threshold effect in the relationship between the risk and
level of alcohol consumption. The harmful use of alcohol is also associated with several infectious
diseases like HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and pneumonia. A significant proportion of the disease burden
attributable to harmful drinking arises from unintentional and intentional injuries, including those due
to road traffic crashes and violence, and suicides. Fatal injuries attributable to alcohol consumption
tend to occur in relatively young people.
4. The degree of risk for harmful use of alcohol varies with age, sex and other biological
characteristics of the consumer as well as with the setting and context in which the drinking takes
place. Some vulnerable or at-risk groups and individuals have increased susceptibility to the toxic,
psychoactive and dependence-producing properties of ethanol. At the same time low risk patterns of
alcohol consumption at the individual level may not be associated with occurrence or significantly
increased probability of negative health and social consequences.
An alcoholic beverage is a liquid that contains ethanol (ethyl alcohol, commonly called “alcohol”) and is intended
for drinking. In most countries with a legal definition of “alcoholic beverage” a threshold for content of ethanol by volume in
a beverage is set at ≥ 0.5% or 1.0%. The predominant categories of alcoholic beverages are beers, wines and spirits.
The word “harmful” in this strategy refers only to public-health effects of alcohol consumption, without prejudice to
religious beliefs and cultural norms in any way.
See document A60/14 Add.1 for a global assessment of public-health problems caused by harmful use of alcohol,
and Global Health Risks: Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. Geneva, World Health
Organization, 2009. EB126/13 Annex 1
5. A substantial scientific knowledge base exists for policy-makers on the effectiveness and cost–
effectiveness of strategies and interventions to prevent and reduce alcohol-related harm.1
much of the evidence comes from high-income countries, the results of meta-analyses and reviews of
the available evidence2
provide sufficient knowledge to inform policy recommendations in terms of
comparative effectiveness and cost–effectiveness of selected policy measures. With better awareness,
there are increased responses at national, regional and global levels. However, these policy responses
are often fragmented and do not always correspond to the magnitude of the impact on health and social
Challenges and opportunities
6. The present commitment to reducing the harmful use of alcohol provides a great opportunity for
improving health and social well-being and for reducing the existing alcohol-attributable disease
burden. However, there are considerable challenges that have to be taken into account in global or
national initiatives or programmes. These include the following:
(a) Increasing global action and international cooperation. The current relevant health,
cultural and market trends worldwide mean that harmful use of alcohol will continue to be a
global health issue. These trends should be recognized and appropriate responses implemented
at all levels. In this respect, there is a need for global guidance and increased international
collaboration to support and complement regional and national actions.
(b) Ensuring intersectoral action. The diversity of alcohol-related problems and measures
necessary to reduce alcohol-related harm points to the need for comprehensive action across
numerous sectors. Policies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol must reach beyond the health
sector, and engage such sectors as development, transport, justice, social welfare, fiscal policy,
trade, agriculture, consumer policy, education and employment.
(c) According appropriate attention. Preventing and reducing harmful use of alcohol is
often given a low priority among decision-makers despite compelling evidence of its serious
public health effects. In addition, there is a clear discrepancy between the increasing availability
and affordability of alcohol beverages in many low- and middle-income countries and those
countries’ capability and capacity to meet the additional public health burden that follows.
Unless this problem is given the attention it deserves, the spread of harmful drinking practices
and norms will continue.
(d) Balancing different interests. Production, distribution, marketing and sales of alcohol
create employment and generate considerable income for economic operators and tax revenue
for governments at different levels. Public health measures to reduce harmful use of alcohol are
sometimes judged to be in conflict with other goals like free markets and consumer choice and
can be seen as harming economic interests and reducing government revenues. Policy-makers
face the challenge of giving an appropriate priority to the promotion and protection of
population health while taking into account other goals, obligations and interests. It should be
noted in this respect that international trade agreements generally recognize the right of
See document A60/14 for evidence-based strategies and interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm.
See, for example: WHO Technical Report Series, No. 944, 2007 and Evidence for the effectiveness and cost–
effectiveness of interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm. Copenhagen, World Health Organization Regional Office for
Europe, 2009. Annex 1 EB126/13
countries to take measures to protect human health, provided that these are not applied in a
manner which would constitute a means of unjustifiable or arbitrary discrimination or disguised
restrictions to trade.
(e) Focusing on equity. Population-wide rates of drinking alcoholic beverages are markedly
lower in poorer societies than in wealthier ones. However, for a given amount of consumption,
poorer populations may experience disproportionately higher levels of alcohol-attributable
harm. There is a great need to develop and implement effective policies and programmes that
reduce such social disparities both inside a country and between countries. Such policies are
also needed in order to generate and disseminate new knowledge about the complex relationship
between alcohol and social and health inequity, particularly among indigenous populations,
minority or marginalized groups and in developing countries.
(f) Considering the “context” in recommending actions. Much of the published evidence
of effectiveness of alcohol-related policy interventions comes from high-income countries, and
concerns have been expressed that their effectiveness depends on context and may not be
transferrable to other settings. However, many interventions to reduce harmful use of alcohol
have been implemented in a wide variety of cultures and settings, and their results are often
consistent and in line with the underpinning theories and evidence base accumulated in other
similar public health areas. The focus for those developing and implementing policies should be
on appropriate tailoring of effective interventions to accommodate local contexts and on
appropriate monitoring and evaluation to provide feedback for further action.
(g) Strengthening information. Systems for collecting, analysing and disseminating data on
alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and policy responses have been developed by
Member States, the WHO Secretariat, and some other stakeholders. There are still substantial
gaps in knowledge and it is important to sharpen the focus on information and knowledge
production and dissemination for further developments in this area, especially in low- and
middle-income countries. The WHO Global Information System on Alcohol and Health and
integrated regional information systems provide the means to monitor better progress made in
reducing harmful use of alcohol at the global and regional levels.
Aims and objectives
7. National and local efforts can produce better results when they are supported by regional and
global action within agreed policy frames. Thus the purpose of the global strategy is to support and
complement public health policies in Member States.
8. The vision behind the global strategy is improved health and social outcomes for individuals,
families and communities, with considerably reduced alcohol-attributable morbidity and mortality and
their ensuing social consequences. It is envisaged that the global strategy will promote and support
local, regional and global actions to prevent and reduce the harmful use of alcohol.
9. The global strategy aims to give guidance for action at all levels; to set priority areas for global
action; and to recommend a portfolio of policy options and measures that can be implemented and
adjusted as appropriate at the national level, taking into account national circumstances, such as
religious and cultural contexts, national public health priorities, as well as resources, capacities and
capabilities. EB126/13 Annex 1
10. The strategy has five objectives:
(a) raised global awareness of the magnitude and nature of the health, social and economic
problems caused by harmful use of alcohol, and increased commitment by governments to act to
address the harmful use of alcohol;
(b) strengthened knowledge base on the magnitude and determinants of alcohol-related harm
and on effective interventions to reduce and prevent such harm;
(c) increased technical support to, and enhanced capacity of, Member States for preventing
the harmful use of alcohol and managing alcohol-use disorders and associated health conditions;
(d) strengthened partnerships and better coordination among stakeholders and increased
mobilization of resources required for appropriate and concerted action to prevent the harmful
use of alcohol;
(e) improved systems for monitoring and surveillance at different levels, and more effective
dissemination and application of information for advocacy, policy development and evaluation
11. The harmful use of alcohol and its related public health problems are influenced by the general
level of alcohol consumption in a population, drinking patterns and local contexts. Achieving the five
objectives will require global, regional and national actions on the levels, patterns and contexts of
alcohol consumption and the wider social determinants of health. Special attention needs to be given
to reducing harm to people other than the drinker and to populations that are at particular risk from
harmful use of alcohol, such as children, adolescents, women of child-bearing age, pregnant and
breastfeeding women, indigenous peoples and other minority groups or groups with low
12. The protection of the health of the population by preventing and reducing the harmful use of
alcohol is a public health priority. The following principles will guide the development and
implementation of policies at all levels; they reflect the multifaceted determinants of alcohol-related
harm and the concerted multisectoral actions required to implement effective interventions.
(a) Public policies and interventions to prevent and reduce alcohol-related harm should be
guided and formulated by public health interests and based on clear public health goals and the
best available evidence.
(b) Policies should be equitable and sensitive to national, religious and cultural contexts.
(c) All involved parties have the responsibility to act in ways that do not undermine the
implementation of public policies and interventions to prevent and reduce harmful use of
(d) Public health should be given proper deference in relation to competing interests and
approaches that support that direction should be promoted. Annex 1 EB126/13
(e) Protection of populations at high risk of alcohol-attributable harm and those exposed to
the effects of harmful drinking by others should be an integral part of policies addressing the
harmful use of alcohol.
(f) Individuals and families affected by the harmful use of alcohol should have access to
affordable and effective prevention and care services.
(g) Children, teenagers and adults who choose not to drink alcohol beverages have the right
to be supported in their non-drinking behaviour and protected from pressures to drink.
National policies and measures
13. The harmful use of alcohol can be reduced if effective actions are taken by countries to protect
their populations. Member States have a primary responsibility for formulating, implementing,
monitoring and evaluating public policies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. Such policies require a
wide range of public health-oriented strategies for prevention and treatment. All countries will benefit
from having a national strategy and appropriate legal frameworks to reduce harmful use of alcohol,
regardless of the level of resources in the country. Depending on the characteristics of policy options
and national circumstances, some policy options can be implemented by non-legal frameworks such as
guidelines or voluntary restraints. Successful implementation of measures should be assisted by
monitoring impact and compliance and establishing and imposing sanctions for non-compliance with
adopted laws and regulations.
14. Sustained political commitment, effective coordination, sustainable funding and appropriate
engagement of subnational governments and civil society are essential for success. Many relevant
decision-making authorities should be involved in the formulation and implementation of alcohol
policies, such as health ministries, transportation authorities or taxation agencies. Governments need
to establish effective and permanent coordination machinery, such as a national alcohol council,
comprising senior representatives of many ministries and other partners, in order to ensure a coherent
approach to alcohol policies and a proper balance between policy goals in relation to harmful use of
alcohol and other public policy goals.
15. Health ministries have a crucial role in bringing together the other ministries and stakeholders
needed for effective policy design and implementation. They should also ensure that planning and
provision of prevention and treatment strategies and interventions are coordinated with those for other
related health conditions with high public health priority such as illicit drug use, mental illness,
violence and injuries, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS.
16. The policy options and interventions available for national action can be grouped into
10 recommended target areas, which should be seen as supportive and complementary to each other.
These 10 areas are:
(a) leadership, awareness and commitment
(b) health services’ response
(c) community action
(d) drink–driving policies and countermeasures EB126/13 Annex 1
(e) availability of alcohol
(f) marketing of alcoholic beverages
(g) pricing policies
(h) reducing the negative consequences of drinking and alcohol intoxication
(i) reducing the public health impact of illicit alcohol and informally produced alcohol1
(j) monitoring and surveillance.
17. The policy options and interventions listed below for each of the 10 recommended target areas
are based on current scientific knowledge, available evidence on effectiveness and cost–effectiveness,
experience and good practices. Not all the policy options and interventions will be applicable or
relevant for all Member States and some may be beyond available resources. As such, the measures
should be implemented at the discretion of each Member State depending on national, religious and
cultural contexts, national public health priorities, and available resources, and in accordance with
constitutional principles and international legal obligations. Policy measures and interventions at the
national level will be supported and complemented by global and regional efforts to reduce the
harmful use of alcohol.
POLICY OPTIONS AND INTERVENTIONS
Area 1. Leadership, awareness and commitment
18. Sustainable action requires strong leadership and a solid base of awareness and political will and
commitment. The commitments should ideally be expressed through adequately funded
comprehensive and intersectoral national policies that clarify the contributions, and division of
responsibility, of the different partners involved. The policies must be based on available evidence and
tailored to local circumstances, with clear objectives, strategies and targets. The policy should be
accompanied by a specific action plan and supported by effective and sustainable implementation and
evaluation mechanisms. The engagement of civil society is essential.
19. For this area policy options and interventions include:
(a) developing comprehensive and adequately funded national and subnational strategies to
reduce the harmful use of alcohol;
(b) establishing or appointing a main institution or agency, as appropriate, to be responsible
for following up national policies, strategies and plans;
Informally produced alcohol means alcoholic beverages produced at home or locally by fermentation and
distillation of fruits, grains, vegetables and the like, and often within the context of local cultural practices and traditions.
Examples of informally produced alcoholic beverages include sorghum beer, palm wine and spirits produced from sugarcane,
grains or other commodities. Annex 1 EB126/13
(c) coordinating alcohol strategies with work in other relevant sectors, including cooperation
between different levels of governments, and with other relevant health-sector strategies and
(d) ensuring broad access to information and effective education and public awareness
programmes among all levels of society about the full range of alcohol-related harm
experienced in the country and the need for, and existence of, effective preventive measures;
(e) raising awareness of harm to others and among vulnerable groups caused by drinking,
avoiding stigmatization and actively discouraging discrimination against affected groups and
(f) publishing regular national reports on alcohol and public health.
Area 2. Health services’ response
20. Health services are central to tackling harm at the individual level among those with alcohol-use
disorders and other health conditions caused by alcohol. Health services should provide prevention
and treatment interventions to individuals and families at risk of, or affected by, alcohol-use disorders
and associated conditions. Another important role of health services and health professionals is to
inform societies about the public health and social consequences of harmful use of alcohol, support
communities in their efforts to reduce the harmful use of alcohol, and to advocate effective societal
responses. Health services should reach out to, mobilize and involve a broad range of players outside
the health sector. Health services response should be sufficiently strengthened and funded in a way
that is commensurate with the magnitude of the public health problems caused by harmful use of
21. For this area policy options and interventions include:
(a) increasing capacity of health and social welfare systems to deliver prevention, treatment
and care for alcohol-use and alcohol-induced disorders and co-morbid conditions, including
support and treatment for affected families and support for mutual help or self-help activities
(b) supporting initiatives for screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful
drinking at primary health care and other settings; such initiatives should include early
identification and management of harmful drinking among pregnant women and women of
(c) improving capacity for prevention of, identification of, and interventions for individuals
and families living with fetal alcohol syndrome and a spectrum of associated disorders;
(d) development and effective coordination of integrated and/or linked prevention, treatment
and care strategies and services for alcohol-use disorders and co-morbid conditions, including
drug-use disorders, depression, suicides, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis;
(e) enhancing availability, accessibility and affordability of treatment services for groups of
low socioeconomic status; EB126/13 Annex 1
(f) establishing and maintaining a system of registration and monitoring of alcoholattributable morbidity and mortality, with regular reporting mechanisms.
Area 3. Community action
22. The impact of harmful use of alcohol on communities can trigger and foster local initiatives and
solutions to local problems. Communities can be supported and empowered by governments and other
stakeholders to use their local knowledge and expertise in adopting effective approaches to prevent
and reduce the harmful use of alcohol by changing collective rather than individual behaviour while
being sensitive to cultural norms, beliefs and value systems.
23. For this area policy options and interventions include:
(a) supporting rapid assessments in order to identify gaps and priority areas for interventions
at the community level;
(b) facilitating increased recognition of alcohol-related harm at the local level and promoting
appropriate responses to the local determinants of harmful use of alcohol and related problems;
(c) strengthening capacity of local authorities to encourage and coordinate concerted
community action by supporting and promoting the development of municipal alcohol policies,
as well as their capacity to enhance partnerships and networks of community institutions and
(d) providing information about effective community-based interventions, and building
capacity at community level for their implementation;
(e) mobilizing communities to prevent the selling of alcohol to, and consumption of alcohol
by, under-age drinkers, and to develop and support alcohol-free environments, especially for
youth and other at-risk groups;
(f) providing community care and support for affected individuals and their families;
(g) developing or supporting community programmes and policies for subpopulations at
particular risk, such as young people, unemployed persons and indigenous populations, specific
issues like the production and distribution of illicit or informal-alcohol beverages and events at
community level such as sporting events and town festivals.
Area 4. Drink–driving policies and countermeasures
24. Intoxication with alcohol seriously affects a person’s judgment, coordination and other motor
functions. Alcohol-impaired driving is a significant public health problem that affects both the drinker
and in many cases innocent parties. Strong evidence-based interventions exist for reducing drink–
driving. Strategies to reduce harm associated with drink–driving should include deterrent measures
that aim to reduce the likelihood that a person will drive under the influence of alcohol, and measures
that create a safer driving environment in order to reduce both the likelihood and severity of harm
associated with alcohol-influenced crashes.
25. In some countries, the number of traffic-related injuries involving intoxicated pedestrians is
substantial and should be a high priority for intervention.